According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately one in 54 children has been identified as having autism spectrum disorder (ASD), compared with one out of 150 only 20 years ago ( ASD defies generalization, but it can affect a constellation of social, communication, and behavior domains. Audiological evaluation is part of a comprehensive developmental assessment for ASD because it is important to rule out hearing loss as an explanation of children’s communication difficulties. There is, however, growing evidence that autism may affect auditory processing, including how well the brain processes the subtleties of spoken language—even in children with ASD but who have clinically normal hearing.