Auditory processing forms the basis of humans’ ability to engage in complex behaviors such as understanding spoken language or playing a musical instrument. Auditory processing is not a rigid, encapsulated process; rather, it interacts intimately with other neural systems and is affected by experience, environmental influences, and active training. Auditory processing is related to language and cognitive function, and impaired auditory processing negatively affects the quality of life of many people. Recent studies suggest that the malleability of the auditory system may be used to study the interaction between sensory and cognitive processes and to enhance human well-being.