The final purpose of this thesis is to explain and justify how early music training can be considered an additional educational tool to prepare the brain for a better learning improvement and human aesthetic-scientific balanced development. For that purpose the study conducts a qualitative research approach based on the most relevant literature review about neuroscience, music and education and applies an integrative, interdisciplinary and critical reflection to present and to justify the multiples benefits of early music training instruction.The notable advances on neuroscience findings related to music and/or education were taken in special consideration, such as those concerned with the concepts of neuroplasticity, sensible periods, nature and nurture on brain development, transfer of learning, musical abilities and nonmusical abilities.The scope of the dissertation is concentrated on music training. Music training is about learning and practicing a musical instrument, based on musical theories, notation, techniques, and cultural and emotional environments. Other delimitation on the scope of the study refers to the functional uses of music on therapy or clinical rehabilitation, which are not considered in this dissertation despite their relevant and confirmed social and medical benefits.The singular life experience of the author, as pianist, musical educator and a master student on education, explains the affective and motivation by the nature of thematic proposed, which also allows her to be more insightful on exposing findings, ideas, opinions and reflections when doing the interdisciplinary, integrative and critical literature overview included on discussion and conclusions.This dissertation might contribute to the dissemination of the neuroscience findings on music training and its implications for education and lifelong learning. Future research should build more bridges between music, neuroscience and education to strengthen the important field of educational neuroscience and the need to include musical education in the school curriculum.