: This paper presents a narrative review of research literature to “map the landscape” of the
mechanisms of the effect of sound vibration on humans including the physiological, neurological,
and biochemical. It begins by narrowing music to sound and sound to vibration. The focus is on low
frequency sound (up to 250 Hz) including infrasound (1–16 Hz). Types of application are described
and include whole body vibration, vibroacoustics, and focal applications of vibration. Literature
on mechanisms of response to vibration is categorized into hemodynamic, neurological, and musculoskeletal. Basic mechanisms of hemodynamic effects including stimulation of endothelial cells
and vibropercussion; of neurological effects including protein kinases activation, nerve stimulation
with a specific look at vibratory analgesia, and oscillatory coherence; of musculoskeletal effects
including muscle stretch reflex, bone cell progenitor fate, vibration effects on bone ossification and
resorption, and anabolic effects on spine and intervertebral discs. In every category research on
clinical applications are described. The conclusion points to the complexity of the field of vibrational
medicine and calls for specific comparative research on type of vibration delivery, amount of body or
surface being stimulated, effect of specific frequencies and intensities to specific mechanisms, and to
greater interdisciplinary cooperation and focus.

Mechanisms for effects of sound vibration on human health